Outline the stages of specimen reception and initial processing, highlighting particular safety issues - Essay Example Once the primary specimen is received in the laboratory, a quick assessment is carried out regarding any clinical risk. Such risks include damage, leakage, missing request form, inadequate labeling, wrong sample sent for requested test or the clinical information does not match the blood sample. However, if a risk has been flagged, it will fall under the Clinical Risk Management guidelines. If there is no clinical risk to be dealt with, the specimen will proceed to the next stage. The sample and the request form have to show the patient demographics. Patient demographics refers to the information that identifies the patient and provides other data that is important to the clinician in coming up with a diagnosis. Demographics consists of the patientâ€™s name, hospital number, and date of birth. Missing demographic data makes the specimen a clinical risk, and a request for a new sample is sent to the requestor. Other instances where the sample can be classified as inadequately labeled include those samples that are not accompanied by supporting paperwork, and those that are labeled differently from the request form in such cases, a request for a new sample is sent to the requestor If the details match the sample, the specimen will be taken for further assessment in the laboratory. Some exceptions can be made in certain situations, especially if there is a need to protect the identity of the one from whom the sample has been obtained. An example of such a situation is in the case of an unrelated bone marrow donor whose identity has been protected using an international code for identification based on the Patient International Data Protection. After the clinician has verified that the specimen identification matches the request form, the anticoagulant tube is then checked to ascertain that the correct sample has been sent to the laboratory. For HLA genotyping, an EDTA anticoagulant
The survey of quality of life, self directed larning and issues of psychological, physical, societal and economic position in older grownups have been of import countries of research over the past few decennaries ( Maddox and Wiley, 1996 ) . Such researches have led to the development of schemes to maximise capacity and potency to cover with the jobs and procedures associated with ripening. At the same clip surveies of relationship between ego directed acquisition and geriatrics have been fuelled. Development of graduated tables like Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale â€“ SDLRS ( Guglielmino, 1997 ) which aim to measure the preparedness of a individual to self-learn hold well increased the attending in the field of gerontology instruction literature. Surveies by Hassan ( 1991 ) and McCoy ( 1992 ) reflect straight relative relationship between grownup â€˜s age and impulse to command learning.A However, for the older grownups there have been no published histories to echo the comparing between the tonss of SDLRS and quality of life. Though Dowden ( 2008 ) laid down that larning attempts consequence in improved life quality, it is now of import to find relationship between steps of life quality and preparedness for autonomous acquisition. Therefore, the focal point of the paper would be to analyze such relationships.AProblem StatementAThe present probe is based on a double job as evident from the debut and subsequently supported by the reappraisal of literature. The job countries are listed below. Some older grownups through ego directed learning overcome hurdlings to keep their province of good being, while most other older grownups find themselves awkward to keep this province. Better apprehension of why merely a few older grownups opt for autonomous acquisition to fulfill their intrinsic demands. A Measures of quality of life and leaning to larn vary well among the old aged grownups and these discrepancies form the evidences of the job countries under survey. Validating a nexus between willingness on autonomous acquisition and life quality can so put down the foundations of utilizing self directed acquisition as a scheme to keep high province of good being in older grownups.APurpose/ObjectivesAThis paper will specifically concentrate on two wide aims based on the job countries. Furthermore, since, non much has been published about grownup â€˜s ego directed acquisition, hence, the research intent will be completed by a 3rd aim. To find and analyze the assorted considerations and methods in analyzing autonomous acquisition. To analyze the relationship between avidity for acquisition and quality of life in older grownups. To analyze the relationship between older grownup â€˜s demographic variables and extent of autonomous acquisition preparedness.HypothesissA The undermentioned hypotheses were constituted to steer the analysis of informations. There is a positive relationship between avidity for acquisition and quality of life. There is a important difference in autonomous acquisition preparedness and quality of life of institutionalised topics and community based sample. There is a important relationship between older grownup â€˜s demographic variables and extent of autonomous acquisition preparedness.Definition of Key FootingsAQuality of Life â€“ The World Health Organization defines Quality of life as â€œ an person â€˜s perceptual experience of their place in life in the context of the civilization and value systems in which they live and in relation to their ends, outlooks, criterions and concerns. It is a wide ranging construct affected in a complex manner by the individual â€˜s physical wellness, psychological province, personal beliefs, societal relationships and their relationship to salient characteristics of their environment â€ ( Oort, 2005 ) . Older AdultA â€“ for the intent of the survey, any individual above the age of 60 old ages is defined as an older grownup.AReappraisal of LiteratureA A Campbell ( 1991 ) stated that quality of life is a obscure term and can non be explained by a individual precise definition. While Kalish ( 1995 ) discussed four important constructs of quality of life in relation to geriatrics: A sense of life satisfaction at the present age A socially acknowledged manner of life for the senior citizens. A sense of felicity with one â€˜s activities and societal position. Care of desirable activities of mid-life. ( p.60 )AA This reflects a important relationship between geriatrics and quality of life where quality of life is viewed as a â€œ major constituent â€ of successful ripening ( Leonard, 1982 ) . Later, Larson ( 1998 ) associated successful aging with province of wellbeing and stated that the latter is a â€œ positive emotionalism experienced by older individuals. â€ ( 1998, p. 109 ) . Therefore, quality of life can be viewed as one â€˜s sense of psychosocial wellbeing. A Subsequently, to make off with the restrictions of unidimensional graduated tables of quality of life and the multidimensional Quaity of Life Index A -QLIA ( Neugarten, et Al. 1961 ) , Salamon and Conte ( 1991 ) published a new step of quality of life. An Indian version of the same viz. â€œ Scale K â€“ Quality of Life inA the Aged â€ ( SKQLE ) contains 25items in five long Likert subscales viz. , â€œ positive ego construct â€ , â€œ positive affectivity â€ , â€œ prosecuting a meaningful life â€ , â€œ conformance in achieved and desired ends â€ and â€œ control over learning activities â€ and 15 points in three short subscales viz. , â€œ societal interactions â€ , â€œ physiological and psychosocial wellness â€ and â€œ economic stableness â€ . ( Khullar and Rai, 2009 ) For the intent of the present survey SKQLE was employed for two grounds. It was standardised on the population under survey i.e. in the Indian context The factors of the graduated table can be linked to geriatric instruction literature and/or preparedness for ego directed acquisition. In the undermentioned subdivisions, the SKQLE, proposed for informations aggregation in this survey, is discussed in item. In 1971, Tough categorized the attacks to analyze self directed larning phenomena for older grownups as learning undertakings ( Tough, 1971 ) . Later it was categorized as qualitative or autonomous preparedness ( Passmore, 1986 ) . Evidence based research findings reflected a wide scope of parametric quantities like psychosocial factors significantly correlate with ego directed learning preparedness. Based on the debut, besides the survey of quality of life of older people in context to residential scene is basically relevant. Findingss suggest that quality of life is significantly better in community sample than in a sample from institutionalised and long term attention puting ( Wolk and Telleen, 1999 ) . Furthermore, they published that the degree of quality is determined by other correlatives of the residential scene of the older grownups.MethodologyThis subdivision includes a elaborate treatment on the methodological analysis proposed for intent of the present research.Research DesignAAn Ex station facto research design has been used for the present survey. A The survey will therefore affect informations aggregation on the two aforementioned variables and any differences determined will reflect the fluctuation of consequences in rating attempts in conformity to self directed larning preparedness tonss, gender, residential scenes, age, and quality of life tonss without any use from the research worker â€˜s terminal.LocationA The research is conceptualized maintaining in head the population of old aged grownups in India. However, with respect to the fluctuations in socioeconomic position and other demographic elements, it is necessary to specify the survey scene. The survey, therefore, includes older grownups populating in two scenes. One, elderly in place scenes in Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, who require minimum support and receive attention and other in senior citizen â€˜s Grih Seva Sansthan, Lucknow, who do non necessitate twenty-four hours attention and are largely retired and self prolonging citizens. This puting facilitates placing the two groups mentioned in the proposed survey and besides aids in informations aggregation.Population and Sampling PlanTo reflect upon the population, it was determined that 284 people of 60 old ages of age or older live in place scenes while 366 reside in the Grih Seva Sansthan ( institutionalised scene ) . A From both scenes, a entire random sample of 200 people will be drawn utilizing a random tabular array. The sample shall represent 100 people from each scene. This sample will guarantee a normal distribution of tonss in SKQLE and SDLRS because of a satisfactory cross subdivision of topics in footings of age, gender, socio-economic position and residential scenes. The information therefore obtained will assist statistical comparings for the declared hypotheses.AData Collection ProceduresTo mensurate an independent variable, a dependent variable and other moderator variables two instruments shall been employed in the proposed survey. The graduated tables shall be distributed personally by the research worker and the location helper. Explanations shall be provided to those necessitating farther elucidations on the signifier. After a hebdomad â€˜s clip, the research worker and location helper shall roll up the signifiers from the sample and thank them for their co-operation.AIndependent VariableA â€“ The independent variable under survey is the Quality of Life, which shall be measured utilizing the Scale K of Quality of Life in Elderly ( SKQLE ) . Dependent VariableA â€“ Readiness for ego directed acquisition is the dependent variable in the proposed survey. Moderating VariablesA -A The present research includes three moderator variables- residential scene, gender and age.ToolsScale K â€“ Quality of Life inA the Aged â€ ( SKQLE ) has been developed by Khullar and Rai ( 2009 ) . It is a self study stock list incorporating 43 points out of which 40 points are divided into short and long graduated tables, all concentrating on measuring of quality of life, as mentioned in the reappraisal of literature. The other three points assess the moderating variables. The manual shows the internal dependability coefficient of the graduated table as 0.93 while the trial retest dependability coefficient is 0.84. There is no reference the cogency of the graduated table. Give this restriction, SKQLE is still widely accepted owing to its high dependability coefficient and possible attack to mensurate the variables of quality of life. The Hindi interlingual rendition of Self Directed Learning Readiness Scale ( SDLRS ) has been employed in the proposed survey to mensurate the dependent variable. Guglielmino ( 1997 ) developed this graduated table to measure the perceptual experiences of the topics about the extent to which they possess attributes indispensable for ego directed acquisition. It is a 58-item Likert graduated table, with a reported dependability coefficient of.87 and a high internal and prognostic cogency.Datas AnalysisAFor the intent of analysis of informations, the hypotheses are shown in void signifier and different methods of analysis are proposed. There is no important relationship between avidity for acquisition and quality of life. There is no important difference in autonomous acquisition preparedness and quality of life of institutionalised topics and community based sample. There is no important difference in autonomous acquisition preparedness and quality of life in males and females. There is no important difference in autonomous acquisition preparedness and quality of life based on age. A The first hypothesis will be tested with a Pearson correlativity coefficient. The 2nd and 3rd hypotheses will be tested by chi-square, and 4th by t-test at.05 degree of significance. A corporate proving shall follow utilizing Analysis Of Variance ( ANOVA )ASignificance of the surveyThere have been extended surveies on the variables of quality of life and leaning for autonomous acquisition. But there have been no important surveies that have studied the two together and reported it in the context of older people. The research therefore proposed is important to set up a relationship between the two variables taking into history the extent to which the demographic variables act upon the preparedness for larning. It shall besides spread out the cognition base in context of older grownups as possible scholars. Schemes can be founded on its consequences to magnify the potency of older people to cover efficaciously with the jobs of old age and bettering quality of life.ARestrictionsAOwing to the heterogeneousness of the older population, certain sections might be overlooked or can non be included hence, the generalizability of the consequences of the survey remains geographically limited. The independent and dependent variable are non concrete concepts but subjective perceptual experiences about one â€˜s accomplishments to add value to life, therefore the consequences of the survey may be affected by dysfunctional beliefs about oneself. In absence of information about the cogency of SKQLE, the survey faces a restriction of formalizing what the tool purports to mensurate. Though at that place in information about high dependability of the tool, merely future researches with other sample and tools may steer better cognition of the constructs being studied in the proposed research.
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